Terpenes and CBD
Terpenes and CBD
What are terpenes?

Terpenes are active substances found in plants and a few animals. They provide the natural aroma of the different herbs, fruits, and flowers. In other words, they’re the reason lemon smells like lemon, mint like mint, roses like roses. Nowadays they’re mostly used by the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and other industries to add flavours, colors and aromas to their products. But they’re most often discussed in the context of cannabis. In cannabis you can find hundreds of terpenes, which is way more than most plants.

The science shows a large variety of terpenes in nature, in the tens of thousands, and they play extremely important roles in the life of plants. They attract animals that would pollinate them and protect against those that would eat them. Apart from aromatic signaling, they play a major role in the plant’s health. By maintaining the immune system and aiding in recovery from physical harm. But plants aren’t the only ones to utilize these particles.

What are the benefits of terpenes?

Many terpenes are classified as bioactive substances. This means they affect the body when consumed. The effect depends on the concentration and how they are administered into the body. Terpenes interact with receptors in the brain, this creates a physiological reaction, often the release of hormones such as serotonin or melatonin. In other words, terpenes can control certain processes in the body connected to physical and mental health. That’s why they’re used very often used in aromatherapy as essential oils to improve mood, lower stress, sinus and lung treatment, and more.

Limonene

As the name suggests, limonene is known as a main ingredient in lemons. This terpene provides a crisp, citrus aroma to many fruits, and cannabis. But this is just one of its many benefits. Limonene shows antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, antidiabetic and anticancer properties. As well as weight-loss and recovery from peptic ulcers. Helps in overcoming stress and symptons of depression.

Alpha-Pinene

Alpha-pinene is one of the most widely spread terpenes on the planet. If you’ve taken a walk through a pine forest, you’ll know it’s scent. Apart from pine needles, you can find it in rosemary and basil, and also, cannabis. It exhibits antiinflammatory, and calming properties and is a well-known bronchodilator. Meaning it opens the airways to overcome asthma attacks and the like. Alpha-pinene also helps with pain, and improves memory.

Myrcene

Myrcene has a musky aroma, and is found in thyme, hops, and cannabis. An extremely versatile terpene with antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antibacterial properties. Also a common analgesic - it has a sedative effect and it’s good at easing pain and infection. It protects from the carcinogenic properties of some molds. In addition, it protects DNA structures from breaking down and is effective against coughing symptoms.

The Entourage effect and why it’s so important

The entourage effect is mainly discussed when talking about cannabis. Cannabis produces a large variety of active compounds, like terpenes, flavonoids, and cannabinoids (like CBD, CBG, CBN). Despite their differences, they cooperate in order to achieve the ‘entourage effect’. A process, in which the different active compounds, found in cannabis, synergize to achieve higher potential benefits and effect.

In short - a bit of everything is better than a lot of one thing.

Two researchers - Raphael Mechoulam and Shimon Ben-Shabat - first started studying the entourage effect in 1998. They found that certain terpenes improve or inhibit the interaction between cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors in the body. Their findings continue to be supported by new studies every year.

The Entourage effect and CBD

In CBD products, which retain a terpene profile, meaning not an isolate, the entourage effect can be observed. It potentiates the qualities of the product when interacting with the mechanisms of the body. They improve the transfer of beneficial compounds to the brain. They also help overcome bacterial defenses and increase the efficacy in absorbtion of cannabinoids.

A 2011 study shows that even without the inclusion of cannabinoids, terpenes continue to exhibit an entourage effect.

What does this mean? It means that a CBD extract with included terpenes is likely more beneficial and has higher medicinal potential than one that is pure CBD - an isolate.

Advice

It’s hard to know what is the safest and most effective medicine for us, and the different conditions of our body. But here is some advice to help you discern what is best for you:


Read the label and lab reports. Lab-tested CBD products, like PBG Global’s, have a described terpene profile and concentrations on the label, and product page.


Read the Little Red book of CBD. We at PBG Global wrote a book about the many benefits and uses of CBD, and how to take advantage of them. The information there is based on over 200 scientific works that describe these effects. Since it is not currently sold however, we’ve uploaded its contents to our website - https://pbg.global.


Titration to effect. The optimal dose for every body is different, that’s why it is considered best to titrate until reaching the desired effect. This means starting with a small dose, and increasing it in small increments until the desired effect. With CBD extract it is widely accepted to start with 1 mg/kg of bodyweight, divided into two doses daily, during or immediately after eating. This quantity is increased gradually, with 0,5 mg/kg bodyweight, until reaching the desired effect or maximum dosage for a particular condition. Information about the maximum dosages can be found on our website in the corresponding articles, found in the section Resources -> The Little red book of CBD


Keep a journal. When testing the new product or medicine it’s good to follow the day-by-day effects it has on our body and the way we feel while using the product. With time you will gain a better understanding of what you need in order to achieve the desired results.

Conclusion 


Terpenes play an important role in the aroma, flavor and effect of plants and products derived from them. They have the potential to work in tandem with the active substances in cannabis, to cause certain effects. These effects could include lowering stress, improved sleep quality, and even anticarcinogenic.


The science around this is still young and new discoveries are being made as we speak. We know, however, that cannabis has a wide therapeutic application, it’s important to dose correctly and most importantly - it’s not toxic to the body.


It’s important to be informed and to pay attention to the contents of CBD products, as well as consulting with your doctor, especially if you already take medicine that may interact with CBD, for more information see here. To find the best CBD products for you look no further than the high quality, lab-tested products of PBG Global.

Conclusion

Terpenes play an important role in the aroma, flavor and effect of plants and products derived from them. They have the potential to work in tandem with the active substances in cannabis, to cause certain effects. These effects could include lowering stress, improved sleep quality, and even anticarcinogenic.


The science around this is still young and new discoveries are being made as we speak. We know, however, that cannabis has a wide therapeutic application, it’s important to dose correctly and most importantly - it’s not toxic to the body.


It’s important to be informed and to pay attention to the contents of CBD products, as well as consulting with your doctor, especially if you already take medicine that may interact with CBD, for more information see here. To find the best CBD products for you look no further than the high quality, lab-tested products of PBG Global.