Cancer can refer to more than 100 illnesses with common hallmarks, such as uncontrolled cell growth and invasiveness . It is second only to cardiovascular disease as the cause of death globally and often is the top cause of death in high-income countries . For decades, the standard pharmacological treatment for cancer has been intravenous cytotoxic chemotherapy, which targets rapidly dividing cells. This treatment doesn’t just affect cancer cells, though, and is toxic to healthy cells . There has been enormous progress in cancer treatments in recent years. Researchers have shifted their focus from traditional chemotherapy to novel targeted therapies and immunotherapies (including monoclonal antibodies, cancer vaccines, adoptive cancer therapies, and immune checkpoint therapies) ,,.